(2001) reported that captures of fruit flies in synthetically baited traps containing 10% propylene glycol based automotive antifreeze were significantly greater than when water and surfactant was used as the capture liquid.
Commercial automotive antifreeze comes in a variety of formulations including those that are clearly inappropriate for insect trapping programs.
For this experiment we compared this same automotive formulation against a household formulation, Splash RV & Marine antifreeze (Superclean Brands, Inc., St.
The new chemical strategy creates a whole family of compounds, each one a variation on natural antifreeze glycoproteins, the team reports.
The added carbon-carbon bonds might make the new molecules more stable, but the proteins might need the carbon-oxygen bonds for good antifreeze activity, she says.
If the new molecules do prove as effective as natural agents, then the new synthesis techniques Ben's team developed might suggest a route to commercially viable antifreeze products, comments biochemist Robert E.
In cold climates, cars often need an infusion of antifreeze to survive the winter.
Scientists have studied fish antifreeze since the 1960s, but now researchers from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, have isolated and analyzed antifreeze proteins from insects.
If put in frozen foods, fish antifreeze proteins could help prevent ice from recrystallizing, as it does, for example, in ice cream left in the freezer too long.
The antifreezes also changed the crystals in more complicated ways.
Though any ordinary cold-blooded creature would freeze solid in the 28.5[deg.]F to 32[deg.]F polar oceans, some fish species manage to stay fluid and flexible in the supercooled waters by carrying antifreeze in their blood (SN: 11/22/86, p.
Antifreeze molecules mainly attacked the sides, allowing only the top and bottom (basal planes) to add layers, so the boxes got tall and skinny.
These antifreeze proteins, however, don't behave like commonly used antifreeze additives, such as ethylene glycol, sodium chloride and other salts.
As a result, fish blood carrying these special proteins has a freezing point that is lower than its melting point -- an effect not seen with other antifreeze compounds.
Recently, researchers interested in crystal growth in general have started to take a closer look at the action of antifreeze proteins.