2001) reported that captures of fruit flies in synthetically baited traps containing 10% propylene glycol based automotive antifreeze were significantly greater than when water and surfactant was used as the capture liquid.
Commercial automotive antifreeze comes in a variety of formulations including those that are clearly inappropriate for insect trapping programs.
For this experiment we compared this same automotive formulation against a household formulation, Splash RV & Marine antifreeze (Superclean Brands, Inc.
The new chemical strategy creates a whole family of compounds, each one a variation on natural antifreeze glycoproteins, the team reports.
The added carbon-carbon bonds might make the new molecules more stable, but the proteins might need the carbon-oxygen bonds for good antifreeze activity, she says.
If the new molecules do prove as effective as natural agents, then the new synthesis techniques Ben's team developed might suggest a route to commercially viable antifreeze products, comments biochemist Robert E.
Scientists have studied fish antifreeze since the 1960s, but now researchers from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, have isolated and analyzed antifreeze proteins from insects.
If put in frozen foods, fish antifreeze proteins could help prevent ice from recrystallizing, as it does, for example, in ice cream left in the freezer too long.
No one knows exactly how the insect antifreeze proteins work, but they seem to bind to the surface of tiny ice crystals and inhibit their growth, Graham says (SN: 11/26/86, p.
F polar oceans, some fish species manage to stay fluid and flexible in the supercooled waters by carrying antifreeze in their blood (SN: 11/22/86, p.
Antifreeze molecules mainly attacked the sides, allowing only the top and bottom (basal planes) to add layers, so the boxes got tall and skinny.
If that were the case, each antifreeze would have the same preferred sites where the polar areas would fit into the crystal lattice.
These antifreeze proteins, however, don't behave like commonly used antifreeze additives, such as ethylene glycol, sodium chloride and other salts.
As a result, fish blood carrying these special proteins has a freezing point that is lower than its melting point -- an effect not seen with other antifreeze compounds.