Kennedy started to lay the groundwork for affirmative
action in 1961 when he signed an executive order instructing government agencies to "not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin."
Less Than Half of Republicans Support Affirmative Action for Minorities
Support for both types of affirmative action programs differs markedly by political party identification.
Despite the Fisher case upholding race-based affirmative action, the court stated that a public university must exhaust all nonracial methods for promoting diversity and only turn to race-conscious policies after finding that "no workable race-neutral alternative would produce the educational benefits of diversity," thus ensuring that an admission policy is narrowly tailored to the goal of diversity.
In the aftermath of the court's Schuette decision, those committed to inclusive and democratic education and societies are now obligated to first explore "race-neutral" alternatives such as "pipeline" projects that seek to mentor younger students in preparation for their application to universities, socioeconomic-based affirmative action, and other polices using proxies for race-based stratification.
of a personal letter, the former Clinton administration official informs her twin 6-year-old sons that she believes they do not "need or deserve affirmative action" that will consider their race as a factor in college admissions.
"One irony is that race-based affirmative action, as it is practiced in highly selective institutions, really doesn't help the vast majority of Black and Latino students in this country," Cashin said during the recent Lumina Ideas Summit: New Pathways to Higher Education Diversity event.
In Egypt, where quota systems and affirmative
action policies are loosely applied, the situation is much different.
Even when there were no disputed questions of fact or law, courts often were reluctant to strike an affirmative
defense from an action when no discovery yet had taken place.
Opponents see the current case as an opportunity to end or curb affirmative
action, which they consider reverse discrimination.
In FY 2002, the Department of Defense required that monies recovered in TRICARE Medical Affirmative
Claims be credited to TRICARE's fund-cite, known as a Defense Health Program (DHP) account, rather than the General Treasury Account.
Writing in The Audacity of Hope, he did not expressly condemn affirmative
action, but he did consign it to a category of exhausted programs that "dissect[s] Americans into 'us' and 'them" and that "can't serve as the basis for the kinds of sustained, broad-based political coalitions needed to transform America." As president, Obama has repeatedly eschewed race-targeting (with respect most notably to employment policy) in favor of "universal" reforms that allegedly lift all boats.
Forgotten by affirmative
action opponents are the actions, pervasive societal attitude towards blacks and discrimination laws which led to the need for affirmative
In Richard Nixon and the Rise of Affirmative
Action: The Pursuit of Racial Equality in an Era of Limits, Kevin Yuill wrestles with an interesting and underexplored question: "Why was President Richard M.
The literature opposed to affirmative
action in hiring, granting tenure and promotion in the university claims that it lowers standards.