Among end-of-treatment abstainers
(n = 201), we observed that the pattern of change of craving was different than that of NWS.
The researchers' hypothesized high-risk drinkers would assess the messages less favorably than the abstainers
or social drinkers, while females would rate the messages more positively than males.
Drinkers were defined as those who consumed alcoholic beverages in the last year, with all others defined as abstainers
When state fixed effects are excluded from the generalized ordered logit models, bans appear to reduce the odds of crossing the threshold between abstainer
and moderate drinker.
Responses regarding ever having used sub stances were used to define abstainers
Further complicating the putative association between drinkers and abstainers
is the issue that abstainers
include never drinkers and former drinkers, and these two groups are very different.
Researchers found personality differences between those individuals considered abstainers
and all others (users) for alcohol and other substances (Mayer, 1988; Masse & Tremblay, 1997; Jackson, 1997).
Consistent with the above literature, we hypothesized that (1) Black abstainers
(those who have no drinks at all in a 7-day period) would score as more culturally traditional (more immersed in Black culture) than Black drinkers, and that (2) abstainers
would have stronger Religious Beliefs and Family Values (as Herd found) than drinkers, and perhaps would be more immersed in other dimensions of African American culture as well.
Frequent users were younger than experimenters, and female experimenters were younger than female abstainers
when they lost their virginity [F(2, 751) = 28.
Nevertheless, they did not mirror those who voted on all variables, suggesting that they were perhaps slightly less committed (perhaps concocting an `excuse' for not voting rather than admitting to being a voluntary abstainer
, which was something they preferred not to admit).
It is a majority of abstainers
who disapprove of alcohol and subscribe to old-fashioned values.
Results show that women currently in a relationship more frequently experience offers to drink alcohol or to drink a little more if they were abstainers
than if they were current drinkers.
This finding is especially true among black men, but differences with abstainer
are also large for white and Hispanic men.
About 40 per cent of Greeks consume alcohol regularly, almost 10 per cent are completely dependent, and a very small percentage are absolute abstainers
, the professor says.
MISSION CLOSEDIn a Twitter message after the vote, Kenyan UN Ambassador Macharia Kamau said Kenya would have joined the group of abstainers
had Nairobi's UN mission in New York been operating on Thursday.