When drinking style is measured by the number of drinks consumed on a typical drinking occasion, banning alcohol on a campus located in a neighborhood with a low density of off-campus bars is associated with a 44 percent reduction in the odds that an individual will cross the threshold between abstainer
and moderate drinker, and a 31 percent reduction in the odds of crossing the threshold between moderate and heavy drinking.
The fourth a priori cluster was abstainers
, defined as individuals who reported never having had sexual intercourse and never having used cigarettes, alcohol or illicit drugs.
Based on their quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, we categorized individuals into the following 10 drinking pattern categories: abstainers
, infrequent light drinkers, infrequent medium drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, frequent light drinkers, frequent medium drinkers, frequent heavy drinkers, daily light drinkers, daily medium drinkers, and daily heavy drinkers.
These groups coincided with the theoretical concept that abstainers
have personality structures that are different from those of experimenters and regular users.
Consistent with the above literature, we hypothesized that (1) Black abstainers
(those who have no drinks at all in a 7-day period) would score as more culturally traditional (more immersed in Black culture) than Black drinkers, and that (2) abstainers
would have stronger Religious Beliefs and Family Values (as Herd found) than drinkers, and perhaps would be more immersed in other dimensions of African American culture as well.
Frequent users were younger than experimenters, and female experimenters were younger than female abstainers
when they lost their virginity [F(2, 751) = 28.19, p [less than] .001].
Also, we propose an optimal strategy for an election campaign or an awareness program that helps politicians to distinguish between different categories of voters which we have divided in our model into six compartments (potential electors, electors, temporary abstainers
, permanent abstainers
, voters for the political party, and voters against the political party) in order to increase the participation rate in the electoral process and obtain the greatest possible number of votes with a minimal effort.
Leffingwell and colleagues (2007) found that students who drank alcohol regularly responded more defensively and in a self-serving manner (i.e., lower problem-importance ratings, more critical of the scientific merit of the risk information, and skeptical of the empirical claims) than did abstainers
. In addition, students who drank did not report any greater personal risk of negative consequences associated with alcohol use after seeing the messages (Leffingwell, et al., 2007).
Drinkers were defined as those who consumed alcoholic beverages in the last year, with all others defined as abstainers
One reason for this may be that those analyses treat all registered electors who do not vote as a single category of abstainers
. We argue that non-voters (from among the registered electorate: we omit from consideration those who are not registered on the electoral roll) fall into two significantly different categories: those who choose not to vote in a particular election (`voluntary abstainers
'); and those who are unable to vote then because of personal and other circumstances but who claim that they would otherwise have done so (`involuntary abstainers
, there was a significant self (M = .00, SD = .00) vs.
Reporting in the July Journal of the American College of Cardiology, researchers studying 5,595 participants, age 65 and older, concluded that those who drank one to six drinks a week were 18 percent less likely to suffer heart failure than abstainers
were, while those who consumed seven to 13 drinks a week had a 34 percent reduced risk.
Russia's ITAR-TASS news agency explained the anomaly later that day: the abstainers
really want to re-elect the current president, ex-Communist Arnold Ruutel, but Ruutel had previously promised to stand for re-election only if the Riigikogu couldn't agree on a leader.
Compared with abstainers
, those who quaffed one to six drinks a week (moderate drinkers) were significantly less likely to develop heart failure.
Newcastle North MP Doug Henderson ( one of the abstainers
( said the Government had made significant concessions on the legislation.