In 1852 while Guadalajara was in a state of siege (with her water supply being cut off), the Virgin of Zapopan once more saved her people.
It is just as they say: "Mary always leads us to Jesus." He concluded his first homily to the Mexican people on January 26, 1979 with this prayer: "Let us place this intention on this altar: The faithful Virgin, the Mother of Guadalupe, from whom we learn the design of God, may she help us in this commitment to Christ until the end of our lives." Amen.
I cannot see how my firm's name conflicts with Virgin in any way."
Mark Kanard, of Virgin Helicopters in New South Wales, said: "We got a legal for bill for $500 (pounds 250) - the cost of preparing a document to insult us."
The letters were sent by lawyers on behalf of Virgin Enterprises Ltd and Virgin Group, whose trademarks in Australia cover telecoms, video games and computers.
A Virgin spokesman said it was "a priority" to protect the name.
According to de Sales, the Virgin, in keeping with her usual circumspect behavior, said "not a single word" at Calvary.
The juxtaposition of these excerpts from the Passion sermons of two well-educated and popular Catholic preachers suggests that by the later sixteenth century, some preachers were beginning to modify their conception of the close ties that bound Mary to Jesus and therefore to alter as well their portrayal of the manner in which the Virgin shared in the sacrifice of the cross.
Gibson identifies the "incarnational aesthetic" as the most significant facet of medieval English art and drama, and she is certain that it is for this reason that Mary plays so prominent a role in East Anglian drama in the fifteenth century.(5) The Virgin, through her participation in the Incarnation, had made it possible to encounter the divine by means of the human and the material.
This essay seeks to examine some of these issues by exploring their connection to one specific but central aspect of Catholic devotion in the late medieval and early modern period: the portrayal of the Virgin Mary in popular sermons on the Passion of Christ.
Not surprisingly, therefore, the medieval Passion sermon is one in which the Virgin emerges from her customary role as an icon of humility, obedience, and intercessory prayer to become an individual in her own right.
Whereas descriptions of the Virgin as a role-model for Christian behavior, particularly Christian women's behavior, tend to be predictable and even stereotypical in both the medieval and early modern periods, the presence of Mary in medieval Passion sermons is almost always marked by a creative dialogue and dramatic action that draw the hearer into a participation with her in the cycle of events surrounding the death of Christ.
So much attention to the Virgin's presence at Calvary might seem a bit strange when one considers the scarcity of Biblical references to her sharing in Jesus' Passion.(14) Jean Gerson reprimanded the four evangelists in his Passion sermon for such a lack of information concerning Mary at this crucial time.
In the cultures of North Africa, Greece, Rome, and Turkey, where the events of the New Testament took place, the word "virgin" had a different meaning than it does today.
Recent scholarship no longer supports the separation of body and spirit, new and better translations of ancient texts are available, and new light has been shed on our cultural understanding of the definition of virgin. Yet at the heart of the teaching about Mary is the belief that God offers God's self to us in the form of Jesus.