(30) All these thinkers seek to keep Marx alive and argue that there is something in Marx's oeuvre which has something to say to the present, or as Derrida puts it, acts as a specter haunting the present.
We do not need to see Marx as a specter haunting the present, threatening to displace the present; we can see Marx's thought as something which is already a part of the contemporary, something which seeks to emancipate hegemony, liberty, equality and resists universals, oppression and totalitarian rule.
Despite offering a liberal vision, Fukuyama is indebted to Marx's specter, because Fukuyama values and recognises the importance of equality if we are to recognise the individual's worth/value.
The new, postmodern, post-Marxist Marxism of Derrida, Kellner and Laclau/Mouffe is undoubtedly more radical than the elements of Marxism and Marx's specter which have infiltrated Fukuyama's thinking.
[because] it has a more comprehensive vision of democracy that encompasses all realms of social life.' (47) However, this new Marxism and its desire to keep Marx alive does not necessarily mean we have to make the leap to arguing that Marxism is a specter providing a hauntology to history.
Thus, new Marxism and Marx's specter is not an overturning of liberal democracy; rather, new Marxism is a claim that there are ideas from Marx's oeuvre which need to be realised and emancipated.
Marx's specter is not something that is absent and waiting to come back; it is something we are trying to deal with and accommodate.
I have used the idea of the specter of Marx to show that Marx's specter does not need to be seen as producing a hauntological history.
I have shown, through an examination of what is means for the specter to come back, that it is possible to construct a dialogue between Modernism and Postmodernism because we can see points of resonance and commonality between the postmodern theory of a hauntology and Fukuyama's idea of a history which culminates in liberal democracy.
This paper has analysed Derrida's use of the specter of Marx, as a case study for the implications of a hauntology of history.