The image of a spectre, as opposed to a ghost or spirit (either of these words would have been arguably more suitable than "spectre"), also provides a direct link to Marx, since the opening sentence of The Communist Manifesto, as Derrida points out, is the image of a spectre, the spectre of communism, haunting Europe (see: Jacques Derrida, Specters of Marx (New York and London: Routledge Classics, 1994), p.
6) In particular, see: Derrida, Specters of Marx, Exordium (xvi-xx).
17) Derrida utters all of this praise of Marx in a single page-see: Derrida, Specters of Marx, p.
This position utilises the thinking of Derrida, in Specters of Marx, as well as: Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics (second edition) (London; New York: Verso, 2001), and Douglas Kellner, "The Obsolescence of Marxism?
is an edited collection of essays; all of which relate to Derrida's Specters of Marx.
In the second section of this paper, I explore the idea of hauntology in more depth and begin to present my central argument, a claim that the idea of a specter haunting the present does not need to be constructed as one side of a binary opposition to Fukuyama's theory of an end of history.
21) Since Derrida tries to keep Marx alive and claim Marx's specter haunts us, Derrida is not simply using Marx as a critique against present-day anti-Marxists (although, he does use Marx to critique Fukuyama and liberal democracy), he also uses Marx to attack the "Marxists" associated with conventional Marxism i.
25) However, due to Derrida's opaque philosophical puns, it is unclear what shape Derrida perceives Marx's specter to take and what a Marx to come would entail; thus it is unclear what value there is in Marx.
Thus, Marx's specter never goes away because it always has something to tell us.
30) All these thinkers seek to keep Marx alive and argue that there is something in Marx's oeuvre which has something to say to the present, or as Derrida puts it, acts as a specter haunting the present.
We do not need to see Marx as a specter haunting the present, threatening to displace the present; we can see Marx's thought as something which is already a part of the contemporary, something which seeks to emancipate hegemony, liberty, equality and resists universals, oppression and totalitarian rule.
It may be a mistake to see modern America as egalitarian, and it is clear that massive global inequalities have been sustained within the present liberal democratic order; however, this may be a result of the failure to implement the theory of liberal democracy and Marx's specter effectively, rather than a failing of liberal democratic theory.