The association of the urban machine with red-light districts and "natural monopolies" like utility companies meant that elite political reformers could employ a hybrid discourse that condemned both tolerated vice and protected corporations.
For reformers all along the rhetorical spectrum, red-light districts were the strongholds of organized vice.
New Orleans' Storyville was the most famous district created through city ordinance, but other cities, including Shreveport, Houston, and El Paso, also had legal red-light districts.  The other technique that urban reformers used to concentrate vice was "tacit localization" through the unequal enforcement of the law.
 District supporters tried to answer this criticism by arguing that red-light districts attracted tourists, provided a significant number of jobs, and strengthened the city's economy, but these arguments held little appeal for elite Progressives.
Concurrently, in red-light districts, madams and saloon proprietors used the comparison between corrupt corporations and anti-vice associations to condemn the unpopular and seemingly arbitrary enforcement of anti-vice laws.
On the closing of the red-light districts as a wartime measure, see Allan M.
To show how the femininity of addiction connected the older medical addicts to the nascent urban drug culture of the early twentieth century, this article will focus on drug use among the sporting class in the urban red-light district. I have two reasons for analyzing drugs in the vice district.