The answer may neither be found in the historical meaning of in loco parentis
nor in contract law governing current institution/student relationship thinking as it provides a contemporary theoretical framework.
The ruling hinges on the doctrine of "in loco parentis
", a Latin term that means "in the place of a parent." This doctrine traditionally refers to the legal responsibility borne by a person (or, sometimes, an organization) who takes on some of the functions and responsibilities of a parent.
Of course, the limits of student privacy laws, the reach of in loco parentis
, and a university's responsibility have dominated the media coverage in the aftermath of the shooting.
In 2002, the United States Supreme Court confirmed that in the school's role of in loco parentis
, drug testing of students who were involved in athletics and extracurricular activities was constitutional.
"Eton College is committed to helping pupils to use both internal and Internet-based learning resources to further their studies, yet we are also in loco parentis
during term time," said Liam Maxwell, Head of ICT at Eton College.
The codewords were compiled by In Loco Parentis
, who provide software aimed at keeping kids safe online.
Yet just as many courts are carving out exceptions to the parent-child immunity doctrine, they are also bringing more "parents" under the protective ambit of in loco parentis
, (6) with contradictory and confusing results.
Lance Gabriel Lazar's study of catechumen houses designed to nurture the faith of neophytes as "factories of conversion" that operated in loco parentis
complements Marc Forster's overview of the limited place of domestic devotion by contrast with institutions like confraternities and schools in baroque Catholicism.
Her elder sister Helen, acting in loco parentis
, walked a marathon return journey between Dumfries and London to successfully petition the Duke of
Teachers are professionally deemed to be in loco parentis
. If that is so, why can't children be compelled to stay in school for their lunch hour?
Loco sextet exercising in loco parentis
consists of Caroline (Josephine de Meaux), an uptight Catholic girl with a latent swearing problem; Daniel (Lannick Gautry), a handsome self-satisfied stud; Joseph (Omar Sy), a lanky and jovial black guy taken with the zaftig camp nurse, Nadine (Marilou Berry); Truman (Guillaume Cyr), a lumpy outgoing French-Canadian, and Lisa (Julie Fournier), an attractive urban damsel who thinks she's the one on vacation.
The childcare setting is not specifically listed in the Practice Act probably because it is a wellness based setting and because parents have a special relationship with their child care provider, who is acting "in loco parentis
," a legal term meaning "on behalf of the parent." Further, there is precedence from other states that nurses providing professional counseling and education to child care programs regarding medication administration practices are engaging in a professional activity rather than nursing delegation.
The closest was Beth Bailey's Sex in the Heartland (1999), a study of the sexual revolution in Lawrence, Kansas, which makes some use of oral history interviews and highlights an important issue of the 1960 campus protests--in loco parentis
, including hours for women.
The term son or daughter is defined in the FMLA as a biological, adopted, or foster child, a stepchild, a legal ward, or a child of a person standing in loco parentis
, who is either under 18 years of age, or 18 years of age or older and incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical disability.
Although acknowledging that the culminating event occurred on school property, the court concluded, "[w]e can discern no connection whatsoever between the playground incident and the concert at the high school which concluded at least 11/2 hours prior to the incident." Further, the court pointed to the absence of Pennsylvania precedents establishing that "in loco parentis
" extends beyond the district's supervisory authority or that "on school property" equates to "under the [district's] supervision."