This is particularly striking, as the Muslims of Kampot, who are in their majority Khmer-speaking Chvea and not Chams, would hardly have appeared likely candidates for an alliance with a group claiming to be "pure Chams" (cam sot).
It has served, inter alia, as last repository of elsewhere forfeited literary and ritual traditions, and has preserved the living memory of a position of traditional leadership, able to convincingly lay claim to a form of religious authority going back to the mid-nineteenth century and historically validated as much by the local Chams as by the Khmer (and French) rulers.
(19.) Etienne Aymonier, "The Chams and Their Religions," in Cham Sculpture of the Tourane Museum: Religious Ceremonies and Superstitions of Champa, ed.
(20.) Agnes De Feo, "Les Chams sot, dissidence de l'islam cambodgien," Les Cahiers de l'Orient 78 (2005): 226-235.
Among Chams in Cambodia the Mawlid establishes the distinction between different groups in the form of a categorization between "those doing the Mawlid" and "those not doing the Mawlid".
(7) This surely intrigues the ethnographer, because such dualism is, today, often highlighted by some Chams in Cambodia as the key to understanding the calendar of annual festivities--the avail akhat-ahir cycle, (8) feminine/masculine, after/before, beginning/end, interior/exterior...
It is all about this location, this piece of land offered by the king through Imam San to generations of Chams, generations of Chams who will offer the king cakes, trees, eggs through the Imam San.
Chams are far from absent--taking part in the conflicts, affiliated here with a ruler, supporting an opponent there (Weber 2014).
Ramadan would be ending the next day, and all of the provinces 425 Cham families were expected at a grand celebration, which would be held at the building site.
As a linguist, I have been particularly fascinated by the Cham. Their traditional language is an ancient derivation originating from India.
This means that a Cham Muslim student in Cambodia would be able to speak or read at least four languages: Arabic, Cham, Khmer, and Malay.
The Vietnamese kingdom, then known as Dai Viet, invaded the Chams (Wade 2003) in 1471 A.D.
At this point, it will be interesting to propose that the Chams were able successfully to participate in the cultural and social dynamics in societies not of their own because they had primordial ties with the Malays of such countries, e.g., Malaysia.
The Chams' (both the Hindu and Muslim Chams in both Cambodia and Vietnam) consciousness of their ethnicity was made more potent in the light of the Cham's historical memory that they were once a great and powerful people that had a kingdom in what is now South Vietnam.
'The dancers of Achilhamo were mostly laymen (gomchens)and they are exempted from taxes (woola) but they complained that they are not getting incentives so they stopped cooperating and performing the cham
.'The gup said that thegewog authorities gave some incentives to the dancers to encourage them but a few villagerscomplained about this and the gewog stopped the practice.