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The aim was to get squares with 2/3 sawn surfaces and 1/3 wane at the midpoint.
Squares were visually graded according to requirements for knots, grain angle, and annual ring width in INSTA 142 (Standards Norway 1997), both with and without taking wane into account (Table 4).
The beams were placed with the most wane facing downward toward the side that was subjected to tension stress during bending.
If significant, these models were used to correct bending strength and MOE to squares having 1/3 wane on each side before comparing with round timber.
Wane factors, density, bending strength, and MOE for each nominal dimension are presented in Table 5.
The model is considered to give a valid estimate of the effect of wane within the range of [DELTA][W.
Means and standard deviations of density, bending strength, and MOE of round timber and squares corrected to 1/3 wane are presented in Table 6.
ANOVA of bending strength showed a significant difference between round timber and squares with 1/3 wane (F = 103.
ANOVA of MOE showed a significant difference between round timber and squares with 1/3 wane (F = 17.
Model 1 shows that even if the effect of wane on bending strength is significant, it is of minor importance when compared with the effects of density and relative knot diameter.