Suggesting a degree of Edwardian insularity, domestic travel constitutes, at least initially, the primary where of tramping in The Tramp, the last of my three categories.
In September, Lord Congleton, in an article entitled 'The Tramp in London' which follows immediately after Lewis's 'Le Pere Francois,' asks: 'Why have we never been asked to feel pleasure when tramping the London pavements?
xix) Like Cresswell, DePastino makes fruitful use of the well-known commentators of tramping life during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era--Jacob Riis, Nels Anderson, James McCook, and Carleton Parker especially.
Generally speaking, tramping "was a young man's pursuit, a virtual stage in the working-class life cycle": for this majority group, "the road represented a brief stage of poverty, an episodic experience rather than a permanent condition.
Yet, "society" could make one take to the road for economic or personal reasons, and once there, the practices and institutions found in actually existing tramping communities could take hold, leading one to adopt not just the identity, but the way of life that went with it.
7) Indispensable Outcasts also looks beyond tramping subcultures to examine the connections between transients and residents in rural and small-town communities, from whom tramps could receive "an important margin of freedom from the labor market" in the form of food, shelter, and other kinds of support.
But while conflicts between "white men" and "foreigners" were not unknown in tramping communities, Higbie stakes out a position similar to Roediger's analysis of the "not-yet-white ethnics" in arguing that "the boundary between [these two categories] was real but not impermeable.
On the other, whatever their views of the tramps, they characterized tramping itself as "a liberating experience.