Our results from assessment of time of day support the conclusion of James (1969) and Baugh and Deacon (1983) who observed that Devils Hole pupfish tend to move into deeper waters in afternoon during summer to avoid thermal stress in shallow water.
First, fish may have used the net as cover; however, lack of a significant interaction between time of day x net x level would indicate otherwise.
Variable Numerator df Denominator df Historical analysis Day 22 20 Time of day 1 20 Order of diver 1 41 Diver 2 41 Dive survey Net 1 2 Time of day 2 4 Level 3 56 Order of diver 1 56 Diver 1 56 Net x time of day 2 4 Net x order of diver 1 56 Order of diver x diver 1 56 Net x level 3 56 Net x time of day x level 6 56 Time of day x level 6 56 Net x order of diver x level 6 56 Shelf survey Net 1 2 Time of day 2 4 Time of day x net 2 4 Combined (dive + shelf survey) Net 1 2 Time of day 2 4 Time of day x net 2 4 Variable F-value Probability > F Historical analysis Day 53.
A 2 x 3 factorial design was employed with gender as one factor and time of day the other.
Time-of-day effects were greatest for highly important ideas from difficult passages; the researchers concluded that time of day influences immediate recall of prose, with the effects dependent on the chronotype (morning- versus evening-type) of the individual (Petros, Beckwith, & Anderson, 1990).
An alternative explanation for the synchrony effect, the concept that individuals exhibit peak performance periods, is that the modulating effects of time of day on age differences may be related to deficits in attentional resources (Chelminski, 2000).
Functions involving semantic knowledge or other crystallized abilities, such as the ability to use multiplication tables, are often unaffected by time of day, whereas fluid abilities, such as using logic to solve a problem, are (May & Hasher, 1998).
Pearson correlations revealed no significant correlation between the two independent variables, time of day and age (Brown, Goddard, Lahar, & Mosley, 1999).
These results caused the researchers to conclude that time of day does not exert a significant influence on adult cognitive performance.
Significant three-way interactions were found for Verbal IQ, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed factors among time of day, time-of-day preference, and first versus second test administration; a two-way interaction was found for Processing Speed between time of day and time-of-day preference.
If that is the case, then the case for a biological preference for time of day is challenged.
This may be because peak temperature moves to an earlier time of day as people age (Anderson et al.
Monk and Leng (1982) were able to specify the type of task performed in accordance with time-of-day preference when they found no interaction between morningness-eveningness and time of day on perceptual-motor tasks, but a significant effect for cognitive tasks.