Hypothesis 2: Organizational norms for negative information are positively related to mum sugarcoating.
Therefore, it seems high self-monitors are more likely than their low self-monitor counterparts to engage in mum behavior, both avoidance and sugarcoating.
Hypothesis 4: Self-monitoring is positively related to mum sugarcoating.
Hypothesis 6: Self-monitoring will moderate the relationship between organizational norms and mum in the form of sugarcoating such that there will be a stronger, positive relation for high self-monitors, since these individuals will mum more as organizational norms for sharing negative information increase.
When predicting sugarcoating, females were more likely to sugarcoat than males, and extraverts engaged in less sugarcoating behavior.
Further, this study provides empirical evidence that individuals may be susceptible to different types of mum since the mum effect may manifest itself in a variety of ways such as sugarcoating information to make it seem more positive, or completely avoiding a situation, which merits giving negative news.
In other words, individuals in this study who reported working in organizations that encouraged sharing bad news reported higher levels of sugarcoating behavior.