With respect to operant reinforcement, we contend that understanding the nature of substitutive
operations may add to the possibilities of designing effective reinforcement-based procedures, provided that reinforcement is understood as a particular arrangement of experimental operations (Schoenfeld 1995), and not as a unique type of learning process.
The attempt to turn stuff into respect is perhaps the saddest of substitutive
The argument for this is equally compelling as for the substitutive
nature (Poppo & Zenger, 2002).
model, which appears to be widely used in the discussions about LGBT sexual identities and legal rights in Western countries, also frames the discussion about LGBT human rights cases in the international context in a particularized manner, where open expression of identity becomes essential for the progress of international LGBT rights.
Similarly, the negative and moderately significant coefficient of the interactive terms between financial development, and legal origin, is an indication that a strong and efficient legal system that provides adequate protection for foreign investors (for example, efficient auditing and bankruptcy laws) can play a substitutive
role in enhancing investors' confidence, irrespective of the extent of financial development.
This is akin to the substitutive
model posited by Greene (1983), which implies an inverse relationship between formal and informal care--that is, the increase in use of one form of care results in a decrease in use of the other form of care.
In such a case, the decision where to locate completely substitutive
investments could actually turn on taxes since taxes make a marginal difference.
The differential diagnosis in physical therapy has to be intended not as a substitutive
act of the medical doctor practice, but as a way to participate more responsibly and professionally to the cure of patients.
74) First, Eule categorizes a plebiscite as either substitutive
hormones for ovariectomized mice or menopausal women compensates for the lack of leptin and takes it back to the time before ovariectomy or menopause.
Our approach with the NeReBot can be considered very close to this philosophy, and our future research will aim to clarify whether a suitable mix of substitutive
and additional robotic training in the early stage of recovery may lead to a favorable tradeoff between the needs for improved outcome and reduced treatment and personnel costs .
2010, "Systems Development Ambidexterity: Explaining the Complementary and Substitutive
Roles of Formal and Informal Controls," Journal of Management Information Systems, 27(2), 87-126.
Although a full review is impossible here, several studies over the years have found that public R&D tends to be complementary to private R&D rather than substitutive
, and can in fact stimulate greater private research investment than would otherwise be expected.
In another case of metallosis after knee arthroplasty with metal-on-metal impingement in a substitutive
long-stemmed knee prosthesis, histology demonstrated numerous histiocytes with a large amount of dark pigment, multinucleated giant cells, abundant fibrosis and fibroblastic reaction, abundant metallic debris, and necrosis, (11) which is strikingly similar to our case.
46) indicates a substitutive
relationship between these forms of non-standard employment.