We therefore evaluated a brief intervention of reproach and apology communication skills based on theory and research on reproaches and apologies (e.
Reproaches vary from nonverbal cues to explicit requests for an apology; they differ in how strongly the victim communicates blame or disapproval.
Mitigating reproaches are victim communications that incorporate an expectation that the offender will explain, excuse, or apologize (Cody & McLaughlin, 1985).
Reproaches also may affect talk about transgressions through their emotional tone.
The link between constructive reproaches and apologies and the promotion of better relationship quality has been well established (see, e.
In it, group members were taught how to offer mitigating reproaches and make constructive apologies.
Participants shared with the group past examples of nonconstructive reproaches, accounts, and evaluations they had experienced (10 minutes).
Also called the Improperia, the reproaches are part of the rite for the veneration of the cross.
For some, the reproaches recall the troubled history of Christian anti-Judaism, especially the accusation of deicide - blaming all Jews for the death of Christ.
Liturgists who defend using the reproaches say the problem of anti-Judaism has to be handled through education, not by deleting or bowdlerizing traditional texts.
At an even deeper level, some critics believe the reproaches undercut the spirituality of the Good Friday liturgy.
Perhaps, they suggest, discomfort with the reproaches is part of a broader current in the post-Vatican II church in which the concepts of sin and guilt, to put it bluntly, went out of style.
Trepidation within the liturgical community is reflected in the fact that while the reproaches appear in the sacramentary (the official prayer book approved by the U.
The reproaches set events in the Hebrew Bible alongside charges of responsibility for Christ's suffering and death.