Where, instead of the constraint *[-son]/u, the top of the hierarchy is occupied by a positional markedness
constraint which prohibits stressed vowels from shortening when they share a mora (*Shared-u/ct), and requires conservation of vowel length (Ident-V-u) a different type of geminate alternation occurs: geminates before open syllables alternate with lengthened singletons before closed syllables.
In the OT implementation of the lexical mapping algorithm I propose, then, default rules and morpholexical rules are replaced by markedness
constraints, appropriately ranked.
Greenberg (1990:317-318) summarises markedness
in four characteristics.
There are various phonetic motivations for this cross-linguistic claim, and the markedness
scale b > d > g has recently been formalized in Optimality Theory as a reflection of this implicational relationship.
It is consistent with the idea that this is a marked ability for children as well (see Hoekstra 1990) for a discussion of other examples of markedness
in first language acquisition).
One useful way to think about exclusive oppositions of A/not-A, such as the relation between bwabwale and masele, is to see them as forming hierarchies based on unequal opposition, or markedness
Narration can occur in all three persons, and in each the degree of markedness
of the narrator can vary from minimal to highly individuated.
The concept of markedness
is emphasized as a way of mediating the debate over the issue of interlanguage development, linking this to the extensive description of inter-sentential cohesive relations in Halliday and Hasan's 1976 study, Cohesion in English.
2007, Symmetric and Asymmetric Encoding of Functional Domains, with Remarks on Typological Markedness
Parallel and chiastic alignment are distinguished and related to Henning Andersen's early work on markedness
It obeys phonological locality conditions, targets phonologically defined constituents, and is sensitive to phonological markedness
This feature aligns Almen's project with the brand of semiotics practiced notably by Robert Hatten; indeed, the influence of Hatten's first book Musical Meaning in Beethoven: Markedness
, Correlation, and Interpretation (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994) is manifest in both substance and manner throughout A Theory of Musical Narrative.
Unlike Mayerthaler's sem-values, with which they share the common markedness
grounds, the <com and >com labels are used for the assessment of the complexity of grammatical environment of chosen constructions, and not for the evaluation of the (cognitive or grammatical) complexity of constructions themselves.
It follows that what demands a linguistic explanation is not why the object is unmarked in certain cases but just opposite: it is its markedness
that must be historically explained" (Havas 2008 : 31).
only those processes that can be analyzed as an interaction between universal markedness
constraints and faithfulness constraints to be considered part of phonology.