The collection of ivories recovered through Banda Project investigations comes from four sites--Kuulo Kataa, and three sites tested during 2001 (see below).
Elephant ivory can be distinguished by intersecting Schreger patterns and "cone in cone" fracturing, whereas hippo and hog ivories show concentric dentinal patterning in cross section (Espinoza & Mann 1991; Krzyszkowska 1990; MacGregor 1985; Penniman 1952; Schmidt & Keil 1971; Smith 1950; Trapani & Fisher 2003).
Nonetheless, associated ceramics suggest a Kuulo Phase context for these ivories as well.
Most of the Kuulo ivories have been smoothed/polished.
This arguably accounts for presence of some ivories in midden contexts.
It is noteworthy that, as always, Thurstan Shaw (1961) set an early standard in his careful documentation of the Dawu ivories (among other artefact classes) that contemporary researchers might well seek to emulate.