These conclusions are consistent with the experience with experimenter
fraud in parapsychology (Kennedy, 2013b).
Response prompts, such as modeling and verbal instructions, were used to teach the participant to present a lowercase letter as a sample stimulus, and then instruct the experimenter
to "Match" and then record the experimenter
Children who had been disappointed by an experimenter
waited for an average of about three minutes before eating the marshmallow, while those who got what was promised lasted 12 minutes.
Within subject-designs are flexible in that an experimenter
can tailor the design to the phenomenon being studied (Connell & Thompson, 1986).
Small studies usually have fewer experimental personnel and less formal procedures than large studies, and therefore have higher potential for some type of experimenter
effect, including fraud.
Applying this model, Navarick (2004) operationally defined a demand cue as an explicitly stated experimenter
preference as to what choice participants should make between two schedules of reinforcement.
In the mannequin situation, an experimenter
simultaneously touched the participant's belly and the mannequin's belly with separate probes.
The other half of the subjects, learners, were exposed to modified MTS trials in which responses of the learners were reinforced not by the experimenter
but by the instructors.
Thus the experimenter
and subject will have been involved in various social activities prior to the experiment: discussion of the ganzfeld procedure, talk about the broader activities of the laboratory, and general "small talk.
Robert Sorge, a psychology professor at the University of Alabama, said that the study suggests that one major reason for lack of replication of animal studies is the gender of the experimenter
- a factor that's not currently stated in the methods sections of published papers.
The results of this small project, which we will discuss more fully later, led to our being among the first to raise the issue of experimenter
psi (Parker, 1978).
At the beginning of the study, the experimenter
told 143 children that a huge bowl of candy was awaiting them in the next room, shortly revealing to them that it was a trick to lure them to play a game.
When the classical music cue was played, the experimenter
was called out of the room to, supposedly, take a phone call -- leaving the children alone in the room for 90 seconds and tempting them to take a peek at the mysterious toy making that sound.
In 1963, Yale psychologist Stanley Milgram reported an appalling discovery: 65 percent of volunteers would deliver electrical shocks to another person at levels they believed were lethal if an experimenter
asked them to.
One important factor of this type is the nature of the interaction between the experimenter
and the study participant.