One simple example of overcoming the excludability
problem in the provision of public goods is clubs, like local swim and tennis clubs.
1403, 1405 (2009) (noting that excludability
has dominated property scholarship).
good, since excludability
is difficult, the problem of underinvestment
57) Private forest goods include traditional commodities, such as timber and property development, and are characterized by excludability
, which refers to the ability to control the use of a good or resource, and subtractability, which denotes the diminishment in value one user incurs for all other users of the resource.
That respondents showed little evidence of inconsistency is suggested by the fact that when asked to indicate their projects' basicness and excludability
on a 6-point Likert-scale, such as "how basic was your research?
A solution that tries to prevent future abuse of the excludability
from gross income of interest on state and local bonds for new stadiums by forbidding the section 103(a) exclusion on stadiums, while providing a new smaller tax incentive for renovations of current stadiums.
The concept of excludability
derives from access; if access can be limited, the good is excludable.
refers instead to the expected legal and economic feasibility of excluding anyone from using the results.
As with other types of club goods, the excludability
of payment information provides a profit incentive to motivate ongoing improvements in efficiency.
35) Here again, even if the knowledge is nonrival, the importance of the issue is a consequence of the development of excludability
and thus of privatization.
Indeed, the Hansen statistic has high p-values, suggesting that the null hypothesis is not rejected and the instrument excludability
requirement is satisfied.
question is therefore important in the discussion of clubs.
In a victory of absolute sovereignty over international law, excludability
was to be stripped of the veneer of technical legality that retrospective excisions (by denying arrival) had provided, and was to become a straightforward categorical status imposed as if by decree.
255 $710 $455 I-690 Application for Waiver of Excludability
At the same time, however, they suggest that excludability
may indeed be a real concern for academic, and particularly biomedical research, but to understand where and how it occurs, they need to look beyond patents to consider additional ways in which flows of knowledge and other inputs into research may be restricted (including secrecy and control over materials).