The general idea is simple: the information good is bundled with some private good that gives its properties of excludability
and rivalry to the entire bundle (VARIAN,1998).
As discussed above, while natural excludability
leads to the embodiment of certain knowledge and techniques in individuals, there is also a role for formal intellectual property rights.
An applicant's excludability
under one of the waivable exclusions is a negative discretionary factor that must be considered under the totality of the circumstances test articulated in the Board of Immigration Appeals' decision in Matter of Pula.
One typical way is through entrepreneurial technological innovation and the institutional allowing of excludability
and enforcement of property rights.
Matters, supra note 354, at 1189-90 (noting that the survey results reveal that academic scientists do not check for patents before commencing research).
See also Amy Kapczynski & Tatha Syed, The Continuum of Excludability
and the Limits of Patents, 122 YALE L.
The interpretation, or evaluation, of the excludability
problem depends on the extent to which the second feature, non-rivalry, is also present.
under Article 1F of the Convention.
These patients are less likely to be affected by any law enforcement or social services responses that may violate the excludability
requirement for identification.
The delivery good is a material means making the copyrighted content accessible to consumers, and introducing rivalness and excludability
For example, resources differ in whether they are natural or human made, in how scarce they are, in their degree of rivalrousness and excludability
, and in whether they are renewable or non-renewable, fragile or durable, and discrete or interconnected in essential ways to natural or human ecosystems.
Based on these findings, application of property rights theory, and the typology of goods (Milgrom & Roberts, 1992; Varian, 1992), while focusing on rivalry and excludability
in consumption, it can be shown that integrity of the competition has the characteristics of a common-pool resource.
We report tests of instrument strength and excludability
in the Results section.
One interesting and unexpected chapter on the role of middlemen in producing "brokered knowledge" about the Chinese immigrant community describes their efforts to shape community responses to questions posed by University of Chicago sociologists and researchers for the Survey on Race Relations based on their belief that the results of this study would impact government decisions regarding the excludability
of Chinese in both Canada and the United States.
The volume is divided into sections covering law and economics of biotechnology, biotech patents, rules on experimental use, secrecy and excludability
, commercialization of publicly funded research, and intellectual property and consumer access.