This age initially introduced the divergent pulls between nationalism and continentalism
Analyzing the strategic and policy implications of this new continentalism
is the most challenging objective that Calder set for himself.
It is seeking a multiplicity of international ties lest it be irretrievably bound to a debilitating continentalism
(otherwise known as Uncle Sam's rip-off).
Drawing on the popular "isolationism," which had survived intact the beginnings of Open Door Empire, and appealing to the nineteenth-century tradition of continentalism
, antiwar spokesmen had a potentially much larger constituency than the Anti-Imperialist League had in 1900.
There was never any significant criticism of Mulroney's continentalism
from the right.
2002 "Ten Years After: Canadian Attitudes Toward Continentalism
In 1965, George Grant wrote Lament for a Nation in which he predicted that Canada would lose its sovereignty to the creeping forces of continentalism
The failure of Sir Wilfrid Laurier's reciprocity agreement in 1911 seemed to mark a check to continentalism
, but it was purely temporary.
Market economics and technology abetted and reinforced an emergent continentalism
as the United States itself evolved into a federal collection of regional societies.
Anglo Protestant "nativism" in Canada exhibited a second strand of "nativism," if it can still be called that, in continentalism
, the Canadian counterpart of US Manifest Destiny.
was far from a passive or "hermit" policy; it was activist, "positive," and "clear cut" and required sophisticated statesmanship and guile to be successful.
Yet, as George MacLean points out in a forthcoming book, Between Actor and Presence, in an era of changing relationships and affiliations, Canada's foreign relations have taken a decidedly triangular shape, with strong links to Europe, a continuing commitment to North American continentalism
, and burgeoning connections to the Asia-Pacific rim.
Consequently, preoccupation with the constitutions of contemporary states must inevitably yield to such formulas as confederation, federation, integration, unification, continentalism
, secession, self-government, independence, multisystem nations, and dual recognition (p.
Although Popery, unnaturalness and foreignness often merged as categories in the attacks on Catholicism, it has generally been argued that the continentalism
of Roman Catholicism was intrinsic to the hostility it aroused.
At the level of national political and economic elites, commitment to a distinct, economically coherent entity organized from east to west has largely given way to what is for Canadians the most potent iteration of the globalization process - the relentless southerly pull of continentalism
, exacerbated by continuing decentralization.