We are persuaded that state law does not reverse-preempt federal law in the present case for two related but distinct reasons: (1) Congress did not intend to include a treaty within the scope of an 'Act of Congress' when it used those words in the MFA and (2) in this case, it is when we construe a treaty--specifically, the Convention, rather than the Convention Act--to determine the parties' respective rights and obligations, that the state law at issue is superseded.
limit our analysis to whether Louisiana law overrides the Convention's requirement that the present dispute be submitted to arbitration because we construe an act of Congress to invalidate, impair, or supersede state law.
It is not clear that DeLeon regretted his departure, yet Bender construes it as evidence that professionalization brought about "a narrowing in the spectrum of legitimate social analysis," even as he also acknowledges that professionalization on Seligman's terms "moved the general discussion of economics to the left.
The first three, all previously published, construe the emergence of the modern, professional, discipline-based university as a response to the breakdown of earlier city-based ways of sustaining intellectual activity.
Much of what the pharmaceutical industry construes
as strategy is activity at the technical or tactical levels.