Much of the history of conscientious objection
to military service in the United States, from the early 1800s to the early 1900s, shows that it was only such "peace church" members who, legally, could be officially approved as conscientious objectors (Macgill, 1968; Moskos & Chambers, 1993).
Even Pope John Paul II (3) supported the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights (ICPC), which said conscientious objection
could not be used to deny the rights of others.
In part one, Lynch describes the legal situation and the debate about conscientious objection
in the United States.
The Court also said that the refusal to serve in the Territories was selective refusal and not conscientious objection
The ANA Code of Ethics, however, defines conscientious objection
as "the moral or religiously based refusal to participate in an activity otherwise required, perhaps even by law" (Fowler 2008, 67).
is a contentious issue, particularly given that we have an all-volunteer force.
The Jehovah's Witnesses are also often prominent figures, especially in Brock's moving discussion of the perhaps predictable reaction to conscientious objection
in Nazi Germany.
It is also the foundation of the right to conscientious objection
6) The Quakers also heavily influenced the creation of the first conscientious objection
exemptions to military conscription.
John Patrick Shanley informed the executive officer of his battalion of a conscientious objection
-- to driving school.
Before 9/11, she says, her office received one to two inquiries a month about how to apply for conscientious objection
Catholic Perspectives reviews and explains a variety of modern developments and issues in Catholic teaching on war and peace, including obliteration bombing, conscientious objection
, nuclear deterrence, humanitarian intervention, the War on Terror, and America's "preventive" war against Iraq.
The My Lai massacre, conscientious objection
, nuclear deterrence, pacifism, sexual and racial discrimination, and homosexuality are all indeed touchy subjects, but, like it or not, they are part and parcel of the subject of military ethics.
Lessons learned from this episode led Mennonites and other peace churches later to develop formal policies of conscientious objection
and alternative service so that they would not be surprised again.
As historian Patricia McNeal demonstrates, while the numbers of Catholic men claiming conscientious objection
rose from a mete four men during World War I to 223 men during World War II, the percentage of Catholic COs to the larger Catholic population remained relatively constant.