The average heat requirements for clinkering blends with oil shale at 1300-1350[degrees]C are 3770 kJ/kg, therefore, additional heat of 1726 kJ/kg or 45% additional energy is needed.
This was achieved by performing energy balance on the clinkering process by dividing all processes into hypothetical paths and the changes in enthalpy were calculated for each of these paths.
3]), there would be an energy savings of 15-20% owing to the nature of the raw materials used and low clinkering temperatures required (1300-1350[degrees]C).
Although there are number of studies on using spent oil shale in the concrete industry, little information is available on utilizing the oil shale itself in the production of cement as an energy source for the clinkering reactions, and as a raw material to make up the cement clinker.
Unlike the cement at those temperatures, the mentioned blend contains enough liquids to proceed with the clinkering reactions during the process of making cement.