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Case reports and studies that included only khat chewers, those that did not report sufficient and clear findings on the association of the dependent and independent variables, those that used a purely convenience selection of study participants, commentaries, letters to the editor and debates were excluded.
The University of California's 1980 Kennedy Study, The Use of Gat in the Northern Yemen and the Addiction Problem, found that light and medium chewers have no addiction after-effects, but heavy users can experience cold shivers and nightmares should they attempt to abandon the habit.
Huddersfield took a political route - chewers are invited to stick their used gum on the "yes" or "no" answers to burning questions of the day.
They want chewers who are ready to quit to log on to their Web site - www.
If the qat chewers are soldiers, for example, the talk will be about military affairs.
In some study populations, nearly 90 percent of people with the condition were habitual betel chewers.
Dear Denver: You say you never have met another cheek chewer.
Fellow Al-Amal Hospital psychologist Khalid Al-Shamiri explains that qat improves and relieves moods temporarily as the chewer begins to feel happy and seemingly has the ability to solve problems and establish his own projects and future plans.
In honor of Bazooka Joe's fiftieth year, Topps set out to award $50,000 to one Bazooka chewer who found the winning game piece wrapped up with a chunk of Bazooka Bubble Gum.
We went to help achieve a chewer friendly environment for those who don't," says Tasso.
To aid the addicted chewer, scientists at PICS, Inc.
Hearing that my father had been a chewer, I'd spit tobacco juice into the batter when no one was looking.
I was a smoker and a heavy tobacco chewer for more than 15 years.
Table 1 The difference between betel chewers and non-betel chewers in terms of Mallampati scores and difficult tracheal intubation-related outcomes Betel chewer, n=105 Mallampati score: number of I: 48, II: 42, III: 13, IV: 2 cases Cormack-Lehane grade: number I: 30, II: 54, III: 17, IV: 3 of cases (104:111) Anaesthetist evaluation of 1: 62, 2: 24, 3: 16, 4: 3 DI: number of cases Intubation attempts: number 1: 97, 2: 7, 3: 1, >3: 0 of cases Non-betel chewer, n=113 P value Mallampati score: number of I: 44, II: 41, III: 26, IV: 2 0.
As frozen-faced food chewer Simon Cowell acted like he'd discovered the new Mariah Carey, he clearly wasn't aware that ambitious Alice had already been given the cold shoulder by his rivals at the BBC.