Many of the questions and issues that precipitated the rise of vocational guidance and counseling in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries
, as the world began its transformation from a primarily agrarian economy to an industrial economy, are present in new guises as the nations of the world engage in the transformation from an industrial to a global, information-based economy.
The caffeine drinks were entirely unknown in Europe prior to the 1500s, whereas sugar had been a plantation crop in the Mediterranean for centuries.
72; Rudi Matthee, "Exotic Substances: the Introduction and Global Spread of Tobacco, Coffee, Cocoa, Tea and Distilled Liquor, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries," in Roy Porter and Mikulas Teich, eds.
Wills, "European Consumption and Asian production in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries," in Consumption and the World of Goods, John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds.
Smith, "From Coffeehouse to Parlour: the consumption of coffee, tea and sugar in north-western Europe in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," in Jordan Goodman, Paul E.
Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America examines the seedtime and the flowering of American slavery, showing that antebellum slavery and the experiences of people enslaved in the ni neteenth century cannot simply be read backwards toward an understanding of the very long history that went before.
Berlin not only presents a weighty and nuanced analysis of American slavery in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but he also delineates shifting concepts of race over four regions and three eras.
Berlin's vision in Many Thousands Gone is bifocal, in the sense that he simultaneously tracks the people who were enslaved as well as the institution of slavery that appears in the book's title; the book might well have been subtitled The First Two Centuries of North America's Enslaved.
Given the outrageous bias of some cultural theories circulating at the turn of the century, it is understandable that the controversy between Catholic and Protestant scholars, begun precisely at the time of the Renaissance and kept alive throughout the centuries
more by inertia than by fervor, would again flare up with unusual virulence, fueled at this time by nationalistic and ethnic rivalries.
For centuries, the Place had been the capital's chief port of entry for foodstuffs brought along the Seine River.
Guild and clandestine labor had coexisted for centuries without undoing the supremacy of the former.
As police reports from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries show, the Place, along with the market of Les Halles, attracted much of the flotsam and jetsam of the urban populace: members of the "laboring classes" like the stonemasons, but also the so-called "dangerous classes"-an elusive cl assification that included criminals and the indigent.
69] But even aside from this, the stonemasons were a familiar part of Paris' social landscape in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to their presence at the hiring fair, because they worked in plain view on many of the capital's great construction projects, were marked by distinctive habits and resided in the notorious boardinghouses of the central city.
Beautifully illustrated with extant letters and writing implements, the book focuses on the physical conveyance of letters in New France and Canada between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
Together, these fascinating books depict a significant expansion of epistolary culture in the French-speaking world between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.