Process of globalization and market liberation have greatly contributed to forming of the contemporary issues from which underdeveloped and developing countries can suffer a lot from like brain drain
on the route Romania- the countries of the West", the authors notice the fact that the tendency of "brain migration" from Romania is oriented towards the well developed countries such as: the United States of America, Great Britain, Germany and France.
1 examines the impact of the brain drain
on institutional quality.
The phenomenon of brain drain
of medical doctors in Pakistan was investigated by many researchers14-16.
While Europe's gloomy economic conditions certainly play a key role in fueling this new brain drain
, sweeping technological changes have also contributed to the flight of talent.
Another research pointed out the causes of Brain Drain
in terms of crisis and decline in organizations.
It seemed likely that a large proportion of German scientists and engineers got their doctorates in Germany, which would skew the extent of the brain drain
suggested by the data.
Docquier, Lohest, and Marfouk (2007) and Beine, Docquier, and Rapoport (2008) analyze migration flows between countries during the 1990-2000 period and find that country size, religious fractionalization, political instability, geographic proximity to major OECD countries, and colonial links are among the significant determinants of overall brain drain
Further historic examples include the brain drain
from Europe between 1933 and 1943 and more recently the brain drain
from the Eastern Bloc--mainly from the former Soviet Union--which occurred in response to the region's communism between 1922 and 1961.
Associate Professor E[currency]E-krE- Sadyk Euner, who returned from the US, told Radikal that "the incentives must be increased to accelerate the reversal of the brain drain
, as the existent incentives are persuasive only for Turkish academics who are already hesitant about remaining in the US.
The combined net effect of brain drain
and brain gain is positive only in countries with low emigration rates.
The data comes from the WEF Competitiveness report, including a total of 142 countries, with the last spot taken by the country with the most brain drain
8) Brain drain
can even occur within a resource-poor country, where imbalances in rural areas versus urban centres encourage health professionals to move into the latter.
The major consequences of Brain Drain
are sharp decrease in the availability of health professionals and quality of health services in developing countries.
According to Edward Mills, chair of global health at the University of Ottawa, who led the study, the brain drain
of trained health workers from poorer countries to richer ones exacerbates the problem of already weak health systems in low-income countries.