For this experiment we compared this same automotive formulation against a household formulation, Splash RV & Marine antifreeze (Superclean Brands, Inc.
However, the antifreeze liquids were recycled, only replacing that absorbed by the catch with an amount sufficient to maintain levels at 300 mL.
In accordance with prior experience, both antifreeze formulations captured far more flies than those with water/surfactant as the capture liquid.
Because the additives in antifreeze are proprietary the material safety data sheets provided by the manufacturer list only those compounds which are considered to be significant safety hazards when used in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.
If the new molecules do prove as effective as natural agents, then the new synthesis techniques Ben's team developed might suggest a route to commercially viable antifreeze
products, comments biochemist Robert E.
No one knows exactly how the insect antifreeze proteins work, but they seem to bind to the surface of tiny ice crystals and inhibit their growth, Graham says (SN: 11/26/86, p.
We have solved the structure for fish antifreeze, so we know how it binds to ice, but it doesn't mean that the insect ones will bind in the same manner.
Grown with the budworm protein, however, the ice crystals look like smooth, hexagonal disks, which would cause less damage to cells preserved with antifreeze, he suggests.
Antifreeze molecules mainly attacked the sides, allowing only the top and bottom (basal planes) to add layers, so the boxes got tall and skinny.
If that were the case, each antifreeze would have the same preferred sites where the polar areas would fit into the crystal lattice.
As a result, fish blood carrying these special proteins has a freezing point that is lower than its melting point -- an effect not seen with other antifreeze compounds.
Recently, researchers interested in crystal growth in general have started to take a closer look at the action of antifreeze proteins.
provide important hints about how antifreeze proteins may prevent crystals from growing.
Instead, its effectiveness peaks when antifreeze levels reach about 4 percent by weight.