What we witnessed during Bush's time in office is a consistency in overdoing the US's hard power
and this will definitely have an impact on the next presidency.
But, while the Pentagon is the best-trained and best-resourced arm of the government, there are limits to what hard power
can achieve on its own.
However, it will take more than hard power
to secure democracy from the vagaries of lawfare.
Likewise, other exercises of economic hard power
undercut the soft power of China's narrative.
Specifically, the use of hard power
in these cases should aim to deter military adventures by the governments of these states and to reassure allies in the respective regions.
Given the limitations of sanctions, however, Cohen feels that hard power
needs to be mustered to assure the United States that its policy goals will be met; in the case of Iran, he seems to call for a blockade of that country's shipborne commerce.
Donald Trump is many things, but no one can doubt his willingness to wield hard power
Cohen sets the scene for his argument by outlining and swiftly dismissing five objections to hard power
: that the world is becoming more peaceful and thus there is less need for force; that the balance of power diminishes the need to exercise military force directly; that soft power is an adequate replacement for hard power
; that the United States is not very good at hard power
and so should not place a particular emphasis on it; and that the so-called isolationist position prioritises domestic needs over international intervention.
Over time, Iran has been billed as a hard power
owing to its history of war, alliances with violent regimes and factions and widespread support for terrorism.
One, hard power
alone may not guarantee victory as in most cases political ends are not achievable through sheer application of military force.
Unlike the 2002-2010 Davutoglu era, in which proactive foreign policy articulated soft power coupled with civilizational multilateralism, moral realism is a strategic choice made in order to achieve three goals simultaneously: to maintain proactivism; to continue to promote the primacy of humanitarian norms and moral responsibility to protect human lives; and to respond effectively and assertively to security risks and challenges through hard power
Christopher Paul's "Enhancing US Efforts to Inform, Influence, and Persuade" warns not to cut strategic communications' capabilities since the result may be a disproportionate decrease in the potency of hard power
has always been part of maintaining that status.
Global leadership requires military hard power
along with soft power tools of culture, media, technology and fashion, he explains.
Turkey's current leadership is trying to cover some distance by exaggerating its power and more importantly eroding soft power elements and using hard power
elements alone or through international blackmail that lacks ethics, as it is seen in the example of hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees released upon Europe or dangerous fait accompli that force its allies to make difficult choices.